Sanitary and high purity fluid handling equipment for the food, beverage, dairy, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and chemical process industries
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Chemical Composition Percentage of Metals and Alloys
Stainless Steel Metal Gauges
Pipe Schedules

Sanitary Tubing: Specifications
Sanitary Tubing: Grit & Finish
Sanitary Tubing: Description by Finish Number
Sanitary Tubing: Finish Specifications

Steam: Capacity Calculations for Steam Loads
Steam: Heating Air with Steam Pipe Coils
Steam: Properties of Saturated Steam
Steam: Velocity Chart

Chemical Composition Percentage of Metals and Alloys
  304 304L 316 316L 1.4435
Carbon C 0.080 0.030 0.080 0.030 0.030*
Manganese Mn 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Phosphorus P 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045*
Sulfur S 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.025
Silicon Si 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00*
Chromium Cr 18.0-20.0 18.0-20.0 16.0-18.0 16.0-18.0 17.0-18.0
Nickel Ni 8.0-13.0 8.0-12.0 10.0-14.0 10.0-14.0 12.5-14.0
Molybdenum Mo     2.0-3.0 2.0-3.0 2.5-3.0
Tungsten W          
Vanadium V          
Cobalt Co          
Other       0.10-0.16N 0.10-0.16N 0.1N* 0.05T*
*Maximum


  2205 AL-6XN C-22 C-276  
Carbon C 0.030* 0.030* 0.010* 0.010*  
Manganese Mn 2.00* 2.00* 1.00* 1.00*  
Phosphorus P 0.030* 0.040*   0.025  
Sulfur S 0.020* 0.030*   0.010*  
Silicon Si 1.00* 1.00* 0.08* 0.08*  
Chromium Cr 22.0-23.0 20.0-22.0 22.0 14.5-16.5  
Nickel Ni 4.5-6.5 23.5-25.5 56.0 57.0  
Molybdenum Mo 3.0-3.5 6.0-7.0 13.0 15.0-17.0  
Tungsten W     3.0* 3.0-4.5  
Vanadium V     0.35* 0.35*  
Cobalt Co     2.5* 2.5*  
Other   0.14-0.20N 0.18-0.25 N 3.0 Fe 4.0-7.0 Fe  
*Maximum


Stainless Steel Metal Gauges
Gauge Thickness (in) lbs/sq ft
22 0.0293 1.23
20 0.0355 1.49
19 0.0420 1.76
18 0.0420 2.02
16 0.0595 2.50
14 0.0751 3.15
13 0.0900 3.78
12 0.1054 4.43
11 0.1200 5.04
10 0.1350 5.67
8 0.1650 6.93
7 0.1874 7.87
-- 0.2500 11.16


Pipe Schedules
Tube vs. Pipe
Manufactured to a set outside diameter, tube is expressed as 1.5" OD, .065" wall. Pipe is specified by a nominal, not actual, inside diameter. The wall thickness of pipe is described by the "schedule," such as schedule 40.

Size OD Schedule 5 Schedule 10
(inches) (inches) ID Wall Thickness ID Wall Thickness
1/8 0.405 .0335 0.035 0.307 0.049
1/4 0.540 0.442 0.049 0.410 0.065
3/8 0.675 0.577 0.049 0.545 0.065
1/2 0.840 0.710 0.065 0.674 0.083
3/4 1.050 0.920 0.065 0.884 0.083
1 1.315 1.185 0.065 1.097 0.109
1 1/4 1.660 1.530 0.065 1.442 0.109
1 1/2 1.900 1.770 0.065 1.682 0.109
2 2.375 2.245 0.065 2.157 0.109
2 1/2 2.875 2.709 0.083 2.635 0.120
3 3.500 3.334 0.083 3.260 0.120
3 1/2 4.000 3.834 0.083 3.760 0.120
4 4.500 4.334 0.083 4.260 0.120
5 5.563 5.345 0.109 5.295 0.134
6 6.625 6.407 0.109 6.357 0.134
8 8.625 8.407 0.109 8.329 0.148


Size OD Schedule 40 Schedule 80
(inches) (inches) ID Wall Thickness ID Wall Thickness
1/8 0.405 0.269 0.068 0.215 0.095
1/4 0.540 0.364 0.088 0.302 0.119
3/8 0.675 0.493 0.091 0.423 0.126
1/2 0.840 0.622 0.109 0.546 0.147
3/4 1.050 0.824 0.113 0.742 0.154
1 1.315 1.049 0.133 0.957 0.179
1 1/4 1.660 1.380 0.140 1.278 0.191
1 1/2 1.900 1.610 0.145 1.500 0.200
2 2.375 2.067 0.154 1.939 0.218
2 1/2 2.875 2.469 0.203 2.323 0.276
3 3.500 3.068 0.216 2.900 0.300
3 1/2 4.000 3.548 0.226 3.364 0.318
4 4.500 4.026 0.237 3.826 0.337
5 5.563 5.047 0.258 4.813 0.375
6 6.625 6.065 0.280 5.761 0.432
8 8.625 7.981 0.322 7.625 0.500


Sanitary Tubing: Specifications
Tube OD  Wall Thickness  Tube ID  Volume  Weight Dry  Weight  w/ Water  Flow at a Mean Velocity  GPM
(inches) (inches) (inches) (gal/100ft) (lbs/100ft) (lbs/100ft) (5 fps) (7 fps) (10 fps)
1/4 0.035 0.180 0.13 8.1 9.2 0.40 0.56 0.79
3/8 0.035 0.305 0.38 12.9 16.0 1.14 1.59 2.28
1/2 0.065 0.370 0.56 30.6 35.3 1.7 2.3 3.4
3/4 0.065 0.620 1.57 48.2 61.3 4.7 6.6 9.4
1 0.065 0.870 3.09 65.8 91.5 9.3 13 19
1 1/2 0.065 1.370 7.66 100.9 164.8 23 32 46
2 0.065 1.870 14.27 136.1 255.1 43 60 86
2 1/2 0.065 2.370 22.92 171.2 362.4 69 96 138
3 0.065 2.870 33.60 206.4 486.7 101 141 202
4 0.083 3.834 59.97 351.8 851.9 180 252 360
6 0.109 5.782 136.39 694.7 1832.2 409 573 818
8 0.109 7.782 247.07 930.6 2991.1 741 1038 1482


Sanitary Tubing: Grit & Finish
Grit Ra (Range, micro-inch)
150 30-35
180 20-25
240 15-20
320 9-11


Sanitary Tubing: Description by Finish Number
No. Description
1 Industrial or mill finish. Bright annealed, pickled, sand blasted or tumbled
3 Sanitary. ID polished to #150 grit or 32 Ra, OD mill finish
3A Polished #150 grit OD, #180 grit ID
5 Industrial. ID mill finish, OD polish to #150 grit or 32 Ra
7 Sanitary. ID and OD polished to #150 grit or 32 Ra


Sanitary Tubing: Finish Specifications
Process Ra (Micro Inches) Ra (Microns) ISO designation
150 grit 30 - 35 0.75 - 0.875 N6
150 grit + Electropolish 12 - 20 0.3 - .05  
       
180 grit 20 - 25 0.5 - .0625  
180 grit + Electropolish 10 - 16 0.25 - 0.4  
       
240 grit 15 - 20 0.375 - 0.5 N5
240 grit + Electropolish 8 - 12 0.2 - 0.3  
       
320 grit 8 - 12 0.2 - 0.3 N4
320 grit + Electropolish 6 - 12 0.15 - 0.3  


Steam: Capacity Calculations for Steam Loads


Steam: Heating Air with Steam Pipe Coils


Steam: Properties of Saturated Steam
Download Steam Table PDF

Steam Velocity Chart
Download Steam Velocity Chart PDF